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Function Point Analysis: Measurement Practices for Successful Software Projects (Addison-Wesley Information Technology Series)

by: David Garmus, David Herron

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Retail Price: $84.95

Publisher: ,2000/12/30


ISBN: 0201699443
ISBN13: 9780201699449

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      Function Point Analysis: Measurement Practices for Successful Software Projects is a comprehensive presentation of the principles of function point analysis (FPA) and a guide to its effective use in managing the development and deployment of software. Written for both information technology (IT) practitioners and managers, it describes how to use this proven-but-underutilized software-sizing metric to achieve successful software projects.

  Completely up-to-date, the book introduces the latest rules and guidelines released in the International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG) Counting Practices Manual 4.1.

  Function Point Analysis presents fundamental counting techniques for basic-to-advanced technologies. It explains the calculations for determining function point size, an indication of a software application's overall functionality and complexity. Moving beyond mechanics, the book features the most common uses of FPA and reveals experience-based techniques for applying the methodology with success.

  The book covers such important topics as:

  An overview of FPA for the IT executive

A description of software measurement, relating size to other software metrics

Sizing data and transactional functions

The application of general system characteristics

Counting object-oriented, Web-based, client-server, and GUI applications

Becoming a Certified Function Point Specialist (CFPS), using a practice exam

The use of FPA for accurate project estimating, development and maintenance outsourcing, and performance productivity baselining

FPA automation tools, including function point repository tools and function point- based project estimation tools

The role of FPA in standardizing industry benchmarking data

Numerous detailed examples and case studies demonstrate the FPA methodology in action. As a reference, tutorial, and practical guide, Function Point Analysis: Measurement Practices for Successful Software Projects raises the level of awareness and understanding of FPA and its role in bringing proven quality standards to the software development industry.


  Author Bio

          David Garmus is President of IFPUG and a member of the Counting Practices Committee. He is an authority in sizing, as well as measurement and estimation of software application development and maintenance. He is a principal of The David Consulting Group, which delivers solutions for today's business problems and tomorrow's technology requirements. With David Herron he wrote Measuring the Software Process (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

  David Herron is Chair of the IFPUG Management Reporting Committee and a member of the IT Performance Committee. He is an authority in using metrics to monitor the impact of IT on the business, in advancing organizations to higher quality levels, and in governing outsourcing contracts. He is a principal of The David Consulting Group, which delivers solutions for today's business problems and tomorrow's technology requirements. With David Garmus he wrote Measuring the Software Process (Prentice-Hall, 1995).


Table of Contents




  Basic Counting Rules.

Advanced Counting.

Preparing for Certification.

What's Different?

  Software Measurement.

Function Points and the Executive.

Function Point Utilization.


Industry Benchmarking Data.

The International Function Point Users Group.

              About the Authors.

1. Software Measurement.


The Need for Software Measurement.

Basic Software Measurement Elements.

  Software Measurement Model: Quantitative and Qualitative Elements.

World-Class Measurement Program.

Entry Level.

Basic Level.

Industry Leader Level.

World-Class Level.

      Establishing a World-Class Measurement Program.

  Discovery Phase.

Gap Analysis Phase.


      2. Executive Introduction to Function Points.


Historical Perspective.

Balanced Scorecard.

Return on Investment.

Unit of Work.

Function Points.

  Defining Value.

Time to Market.



              3. Measuring with Function Points.


Function Points in the Lifecycle.

Function Point Measures.





      Using Function Point Measurement Data Effectively.

Developing a Measurement Profile.

Available Industry Comparisons.


      4. Using Function Points Effectively.


Project Manager Level: Estimating Software Projects.

Using Function Points.

IT Management Level: Establishing Performance Benchmarks.

  Industry Best Practices.

Organization Level: Establishing Service-Level Measures.

Project and Application Outsourcing.

Maintenance Outsourcing.

AD/M Outsourcing.


      5. Software Industry Benchmark Data.


How IT Is Using Industry Data.

Benchmarking. Concerns with Industry Data.



Standard Definitions.

      What Role Do Function Points Play?

Sources of Industry Data.

  The Gartner Group.

META Group.

Rubin Systems, Inc.

Software Productivity Research.


Compass America.

The David Consulting Group.

The Benchmarking Exchange.

Hackett Benchmarking & Research.

      Hope for the Future.


      6. Introduction to Function Point Analysis.


The Function Point Counting Process.

The Process Used to Size Function Points.

Types of Counts.

Identifying the Counting Scope and the Application Boundary.


      7. Sizing Data Functions.


Data Functions.

  Internal Logical Files.

External Interface Files.

      Complexity and Contribution: ILFs and EIFs.

An Example of Counting ILFs and EIFs.


      8. Sizing Transactional Functions.


Transactional Functions.

External Inputs.

  Complexity and Contribution: EIs.

An Example of Counting EIs.

      External Outputs.

  Complexity and Contribution: EOs.

An Example of Counting EOs.

      External Inquiries.

  Complexity and Contribution: EQs.

An Example of Counting EQs.




The Process.

General System Characteristics.

  1. Data Communications.

2. Distributed Data Processing.

3. Performance.

4. Heavily Used Configuration.

5. Transaction Rate.

6. Online Data Entry.

7. End User Efficiency.

8. Online Update.

9. Complex Processing.

10. Reusability.

11. Installation Ease.

12. Operational Ease.

13. Multiple Sites.

14. Facilitate Change.

      Value Adjustment Factor.


      10. Calculating and Applying Function Points.


Final Adjusted Function Point Count.

Counting a Catalog Business: An Example.

Function Point Calculations and Formulas.

  Development Project Function Point Count.

Enhancement Project Function Point Count.

Application Function Point Count.


      11. Case Studies in Counting.


Three Case Studies.

  Problem A.

Problem B.

Problem C.

Answers to the Three Case Studies.

      A Short Case Study in Project Management.

  The Problem.


      A Function Point Counting Exercise in Early Definition.

  The Problem.


              12. Counting Advanced Technologies.


Object-Oriented Analysis.

Client-Server Applications.

  Application Boundary.

Data Functions.

Technical Features.

Transactional Functions.

      Web-Based Applications.

  Application Boundary.

Functionality of Web-Based Applications.

      Data Warehouse Applications.

  Functionality of Data Warehouse Applications.

Concerns about Productivity Rates for Data Warehouse Applications.

      Query/Report Generators.

  Data Functionality.

Transactional Functionality.


      13. Counting a GUI Application.


Counting GUI Functionality.

  GUI Counting Guidelines.

      Exercise in Counting a GUI System.

  1. Determine the Type of Function Point Count.

2. Identify the Counting Scope and the Application Boundary.

3 and 4. Identify All Data and Transactional Functions and Their Complexity.

5. Determine the Unadjusted Function Point Count.

6. Determine the Value Adjustment Factor.

7. Calculate the Final Adjusted Function Point Count.

              14. Counting an Object-Oriented Application.


Functional Description of Personnel Query Service.

  Starting Personnel Query Service.





Add and Delete Title, Location, and Organization Records.

Add and Delete an Employee's Picture.


      Object Model for Personnel Query Service.

System Diagram for Personnel Query Service.

Function Point Analysis for Personnel Query Service.

      15. Tools.


Basic Tool Selection Criteria.

Selecting a Function Point Repository Tool.

Selecting a Project-Estimating Tool.

Conducting a Proof of Concept.

  1. Identification of the Current Estimating Problem.

2. Definition of the Deliverable.

3. Process and Tool Selection.

4. Project Selection.

5. Review of the Estimating Process with the Project Managers.

6. Sizing and Complexity Analysis.

7. Identification of Project Variables.

8. Analysis of the Data.

9. Review of the Estimate.

10. Assessment of the Process.


      16. Preparing for the CFPs Exam.

  Practice Certified Function Point Specialist Exam.

  Part I.

Part II.

Part III.

      Answer Sheets.

  Answer Sheet: Part I.

Answer Sheet: Part II.

Answer Sheet: Part III.

              Appendix A: Project Profile Worksheet.

Appendix B: Project Profile Worksheet Guidelines.

Appendix C: Complexity Factors Project Worksheet.

Appendix D: Sample Project Analysis.

Appendix E: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).

Appendix F: Answers to the CFPS Practice Exam.

Answers to the CFPS Practice Exam.