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31 Days Before Your CCNA Exam: A day-by-day review guide for the CCNA 640-802 exam, 2nd Edition

by: Johnson Allan

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Retail Price: $29.95

Publisher: CISCO PRESS,24.11.08

Category: CCNA 2012 Level:

ISBN: 1587131978
ISBN13: 9781587131974

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# A practical way to commit to taking the CCNA in one month after Networking Academy study and understand the process
# A way to review key points of the Networking Academy information with a specific focus on CCNA objectives
# Description of the 640-802 CCNA exam organization and sign up process, includes how to use a voucher
# Strategies from the author help you to be mentally, organizationally, and physically prepared for exam day
# The only CCNA exam preparation resource to address a student CCNA exam readiness gap



Features and Benefits

top


A Day by Day Quick Reference Study Guide for the Cisco Networking Academy any CCNA Student


  * A practical way to commit to taking the CCNA in one month


  * A way to review key points of the Networking Academy information with a specific focus on CCNA objectives


  * The only CCNA exam preparation resource to address a student CCNA exam readiness gap



Table of Contents

top


Introduction

xxv

Part I: Networking Basics

1

Day 31: Network Devices, Components, and Diagrams

3


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

3


  Key Points

3


  Devices

3


          Switches

3


          Routers

5


  Media

5


  LANs and WANs

7


  Networking Icons

7


  Physical and Logical Topologies

8


  The Hierarchical Network Model

9


  The Enterprise Architecture

10


  Network Documentation

11


  Study Resources

12

Day 30: Network Models and Applications

13


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

13


  Key Points

13


  The OSI and TCP/IP Models

13


          OSI Layers

14


          TCP/IP Layers and Protocols

15


          Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation

16


  Growth of Network-Based Applications

17


          Quality of Service

17


          Increased Network Usage

17


          The Impact of Voice and Video on the Network

18


  Study Resources

19

Day 29: Network Data Flow from End-to-End

21


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

21


  Key Points

21


  The TCP/IP Application Layer

21


  The TCP/IP Transport Layer

21


          TCP Header

22


          Port Numbers

23


          Error Recovery

24


          Flow Control

25


          Connection Establishment and Termination

25


          UDP

26


  The TCP/IP Internet Layer

26


  The TCP/IP Network Access Layer

27


  Data Encapsulation Summary

28


  Using Layers to Troubleshoot

29


  Study Resources

29

Part II: Switching Concepts and Configuration

31

Day 28: Connecting Switches and Ethernet Technology

33


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

33


  Key Topics

33


  Ethernet Overview

33


  Legacy Ethernet Technologies

34


          CSMA/CD

35


          Legacy Ethernet Summary

35


  Current Ethernet Technologies

36


  UTP Cabling

36


  Benefits of Using Switches

37


  Ethernet Addressing

38


  Ethernet Framing

39


  The Role of the Physical Layer

40


  Study Resources

41

Day 27: Network Segmentation and Switching Concepts

43


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

43


  Key Topics

43


  Evolution to Switching

43


  Switching Logic

44


  Collision and Broadcast Domains

45


  Frame Forwarding

45


          Switch Forwarding Methods

45


          Symmetric and Asymmetric Switching

46


          Memory Buffering

46


          Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switching

46


  Accessing and Navigating Cisco IOS

46


          Connecting to Cisco Devices

46


          CLI EXEC Sessions

47


          Using the Help Facility

48


          CLI Navigation and Editing Shortcuts

48


          Command History

49


          IOS Examination Commands

50


          Subconfiguration Modes

50


  Storing and Erasing Configuration Files

51


  Study Resources

52

Day 26: Basic Switch Configuration and Port Security

53


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

53


  Key Topics

53


  Basic Switch Configuration Commands

53


  Configuring SSH Access

55


  Configuring Port Security

56


  Shutting Down and Securing Unused Interfaces

58


  Study Resources

59

Day 25: Verifying and Troubleshooting Basic Switch Configurations

61


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

61


  Key Points

61


  Troubleshooting Methodology

61


  Verifying Network Connectivity

62


  Interface Status and the Switch Configuration

65


          Interface Status Codes

65


          Duplex and Speed Mismatches

66


          Common Layer 1 Problems On "Up" Interfaces

67


  CDP as a Troubleshooting Tool

68


  Study Resources

70

Day 24: Switching Technologies and VLAN Concepts

71


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

71


  Key Points

71


  VLAN Concepts

71


          Traffic Types

72


          Types of VLANs

72


          Voice VLAN Example

73


          Trunking VLANs

74


          Dynamic Trunking Protocol

75


  VTP Concepts

76


          VTP Modes

77


          VTP Operation

77


          VTP Pruning

78


  STP Concepts and Operation

78


  RSTP Concepts and Operation

80


  Configuring and Verifying STP

82


          PVST+, PVRST, and MIST

82


          Configuring and Verifying the BID

82


          PortFast

84


          Configuring RSTP

84


          Troubleshooting STP

84


  Study Resources

85

Day 23: VLAN and Trunking Configuration and Troubleshooting

87


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

87


  Key Points

87


  Sample Topology

87


  VLAN Configuration and Verification Commands

88


  Configuring and Verifying Trunking

91


  Troubleshooting VLAN and Trunking Problems

93


  Study Resources

95

Day 22: VTP and InterVLAN Routing Configuration and Troubleshooting

97


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

97


  Key Points

97


  VTP Configuration and Verification

97


  VTP Troubleshooting

102


  Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration and Verification

103


  Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing

105


  Study Resources

106

Part III: Addressing the Network

107

Day 21: IPv4 Address Subnetting

109


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

109


  Key Topics

109


  IPv4 Addressing

109


          Header Format

109


          Classes of Addresses

110


          Purpose of the Subnet Mask

111


  Subnetting in Four Steps

112


          Determine How Many Bits to Borrow

113


          Determine the New Subnet Mask

114


          Determine the Subnet Multiplier

114


          List the Subnets, Host Ranges, and Broadcast Addresses

114


          Subnetting Example 1

114


          Subnetting Example 2

115


          Subnetting Example 3

115


  VLSM

116


  Summarizing Subnet Addresses

118


  Private and Public IP Addressing

119


  Study Resources

120

Day 20: Host Addressing, DHCP, and DNS

123


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

123


  Key Topics

123


  Addressing Devices

123


  ARP

124


  DNS

126


  DHCP

127


  Configuring on a Cisco Router as a DHCP Server

128


  Network Layer Testing Tools

132


          Ping

132


  Study Resources

134

Day 19: Basic IPv6 Concepts

137


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

137


  Key Topics

137


  Overview of IPv6

137


  IPv6 Address Structure

139


          Conventions for Writing IPv6 Addresses

139


          Conventions for Writing IPv6 Prefixes

139


          IPv6 Global Unicast Address

140


          Reserved, Private, and Loopback Addresses

141


          The IPv6 Interface ID and EUI-64 Format

141


          IPv6 Address Management

142


  Transitioning to IPv6

142


  Study Resources

144

Part IV: Routing Concepts and Configuration

145

Day 18: Basic Routing Concepts

147


  Key Topics

147


  Packet Forwarding

147


          Path Determination and Switching Function Example

148


  Routing Methods

149


  Classifying Dynamic Routing Protocols

150


          IGP and EGP

150


          Distance Vector Routing Protocols

150


          Link-State Routing Protocols

151


          Classful Routing Protocols

151


          Classless Routing Protocols

152


  Dynamic Routing Metrics

152


  Administrative Distance

153


  IGP Comparison Summary

154


  Routing Loop Prevention

155


  Link-State Routing Protocol Features

156


          Building the LSDB

156


          Calculating the Dijkstra Algorithm

157


          Convergence with Link-State Protocols

158


  Study Resources

158

Day 17: Connecting and Booting Routers

161


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

161


  Key Topics

161


  Router Internal Components

161


  IOS

162


  Router Bootup Process

162


  Router Ports and Interfaces

164


  Router Connections

164


  Study Resources

166

Day 16: Basic Router Configuration and Verification

167


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

167


  Key Topic

167


  Basic Router Configuration

167


  Verifying Network Connectivity

175


  Study Resources

177

Day 15: Managing Cisco IOS and Configuration Files

179


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

179


  Key Topics

179


  The Cisco IOS File System

179


          IFS Commands

179


          URL Prefixes for Specifying File Locations

181


          Commands for Managing Configuration Files

182


          Cisco IOS File Naming Conventions

182


  Manage IOS Images

183


          Backing Up an IOS image

184


          Restoring an IOS Image

185


          Recovering an IOS Image Using a TFTP Server

186


          Recovering an IOS Image Using Xmodem

187


  Recovering a Lost Password

188


  Study Resources

189

Day 14: Static, Default, and RIP Routing

191


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

191


  Key Topics

191


  Static Route Configuration

191


          Static Routes Using the "Next Hop" Parameter

193


          Static Routes Using the Exit Interface Parameter

193


          Default Static Routes

194


  RIP Concepts

197


          RIPv1 Message Format

197


          RIPv1 Operation

198


          RIPv1 Configuration

198


          RIPv1 Verification and Troubleshooting

199


          Passive Interfaces

203


          Automatic Summarization

204


          Default Routing and RIPv1

206


          RIPv2 Configuration

207


          Disabling Autosummarization

208


          RIPv2 Verification and Troubleshooting

208


  Study Resources

209

Day 13: EIGRP Routing

211


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

211


  Key Topics

211


  EIGRP Operation

211


          EIGRP Message Format

212


          RTP and EIGRP Packet Types

212


          DUAL

214


          Administrative Distance

214


  EIGRP Configuration

214


          The network Command

215


          Automatic Summarization

216


          Manual Summarization

217


          EIGRP Default Route

219


          Modifying the EIGRP Metric

219


          Modifying Hello Intervals and Hold Times

220


  EIGRP Verification and Troubleshooting

221


  Study Resources

226

Day 12: OSPF Routing

227


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

227


  Key Topics

227


  OSPF Operation

227


          OSPF Message Format

227


          OSPF Packet Types

228


          Neighbor Establishment

228


          Link-State Advertisements

229


          OSPF Network Types

230


          DR/BDR Election

230


          OSPF Algorithm

231


          Link-State Routing Process

232


  OSPF Configuration

233


          The router ospf Command

234


          The network Command

234


          Router ID

235


          Modifying the OSPF Metric

236


          Controlling the DR/BDR Election

237


          Redistributing a Default Route

238


          Modifying Hello Intervals and Hold Times

238


  Verifying and Troubleshooting OSPF

239


  Study Resources

243

Day 11: Troubleshooting Routing

245


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

245


  Key Topics

245


  The Basic Commands

245


  VLSM Troubleshooting

246


  Discontiguous Networks

246


  Troubleshooting RIP

247


  Troubleshooting EIGRP and OSPF Interface Issues

248


  Troubleshooting Neighbor Adjacency Issues

249


  Study Resources

250

Part V: Wireless Concepts and Configuration

251

Day 10: Wireless Standards, Components, and Security

253


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

253


  Key Topics

253


  Wireless Standards

253


  Wireless Modes of Operation

254


  Wireless Frequencies

254


  Wireless Encoding and Channels

255


  Wireless Coverage Area

256


  CSMA/CA

256


  Wireless Security Risks

257


  Wireless Security Standards

258


  Study Resources

259

Day 9: Configuring and Troubleshooting Wireless Networks

261


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

261


  Key Topics

261


  Implementing a WLAN

261


          Wireless LAN Implementation Checklist

262


          Wireless Troubleshooting

264


  Study Resources

264

Part VI: Basic Security Concepts and Configuration

265

Day 8: Mitigating Security Threats and Best Practices

267


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

267


  Key Topics

267


  The Importance of Security

267


          Attacker Terminology

267


          Thinking Like an Attacker

268


          Balancing Security and Availability

269


          Developing a Security Policy

269


  Common Security Threats

270


          Vulnerabilities

270


          Threats to Physical Infrastructure

271


          Threats to Networks

271


          Types of Network Attacks

271


  General Mitigation Techniques

273


          Host and Server Security

273


          Intrusion Detection and Prevention

273


          Security Appliances and Applications

273


  Maintaining Security

275


  Study Resources

276

Part VII: ACL and NAT Concepts and Configuration

277

Day 7: ACL Concepts and Configurations

279


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

279


  Key Topics

279


  ACL Concepts

279


          Defining an ACL

279


          Processing Interface ACLs

279


          Types of ACLs

280


          ACL Identification

281


          ACL Design Guidelines

281


  Configuring Standard Numbered ACLs

282


          Standard Numbered ACL: Permit Specific Network

282


          Standard Numbered ACL: Deny a Specific Host

283


          Standard Numbered ACL: Deny a Specific Subnet

283


          Standard Numbered ACL: Deny Telnet Access to the Router

284


  Configuring Extended Numbered ACLs

284


          Extended Numbered ACL: Deny FTP from Subnets

285


          Extended Numbered ACL: Deny Only Telnet from Subnet

285


  Configuring Named ACLs

286


          Standard Named ACL Steps and Syntax

286


          Standard Named ACL: Deny a Single Host from a Given Subnet

286


          Extended Named ACL Steps and Syntax

287


          Extended Named ACL: Deny a Telnet from a Subnet

287


  Adding Comments to Named or Numbered ACLs

287


  Complex ACLs

288


  Study Resources

288

Day 6: Verifying and Troubleshooting ACL Implementations

289


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

289


  Key Topics

289


  Verifying ACLs

289


  Troubleshooting ACLs

291


          Problem 1: Host Has No Connectivity

291


          Problem 2: Denied Protocols

292


          Problem 3: Telnet is Allowed #1

293


          Problem 4: Telnet Is Allowed #2

294


          Problem 5: Telnet Is Allowed #3

294


  Study Resources

295

Day 5: NAT Concepts, Configuration, and Troubleshooting

297


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

297


  Key Topics

297


  NAT Concepts

297


          A NAT Example

298


          Dynamic and Static NAT

299


          NAT Overload

299


          NAT Benefits

300


          NAT Limitations

300


  Configuring Static NAT

301


  Configuring Dynamic NAT

301


  Configuring NAT Overload

303


  Verifying NAT

303


  Troubleshooting NAT

304


  Study Resources

306

Part VIII: WAN Concepts and Configuration

307

Day 4: WAN and VPN Technologies

309


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

309


  Key Topics

309


  WAN Technology Concepts

309


          WAN Components and Devices

309


          WAN Physical Layer Standards

311


          WAN Data Link Protocols

312


          WAN Switching

312


  WAN Connection Options

313


          Dedicated Connection Options

314


          Circuit-Switched Connection Options

314


          Packet-Switched Connection Options

315


          Internet Connection Options

317


          Choosing a WAN Link Option

319


  VPN Technology

320


          VPN Benefits

320


          Types of VPN Access

320


          VPN Components

322


          Establishing Secure VPN Connections

322


  Study Resources

326

Day 3: PPP Configuration and Troubleshooting

329


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

329


  Key Topics

329


  HDLC

329


          HDLC Encapsulation

329


          Configuring HDLC

330


          Verifying HDLC

331


  PPP Concepts

331


          The PPP Frame Format

331


          PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP)

332


  PPP Configuration and Verification

334


          Basic PPP

334


  Study Resources

336

Day 2: Frame Relay Configuration and Troubleshooting

337


  CCNA 640-802 Exam Topics

337


  Key Topics

337


  Frame Relay Concepts

337


          Frame Relay Components

338


          Frame Relay Topologies

339


          NBMA Limitations and Solutions

340


          Inverse ARP and LMI Concepts

341


          Inverse ARP and LMI Operation

342


  Configuring and Verifying Frame Relay

343


          Full Mesh with One Subnet

344


          Partial Mesh with One Subnet per PVC

347


          Frame Relay Verification

348


  Troubleshooting WAN Implementations

349


          Troubleshooting Layer 1 Problems

350


          Troubleshooting Layer 2 Problems

350


          Troubleshooting Layer 3 Problems

351


  Study Resources

352

Day 1: CCNA Skills Review and Practice

353


  Key Topics

353


  CCNA Skills Practice

353


          Introduction

353


          Topology Diagram

353


          Addressing Table

354


          VLAN Configuration and Port Mappings

355


          ISP Configuration

355


          Task 1: Configure Frame Relay in a Hub-and-Spoke Topology

356


          Task 2: Configure PPP with CHAP

356


          Task 3: Configure Static and Dynamic NAT on HQ

356


          Task 4: Configure Default Routing

357


          Task 5: Configure Inter-VLAN Routing

357


          Task 6: Configure and Optimize EIGRP Routing

357


          Task 7: Configure VTP, Trunking, the VLAN Interface, and VLANs

357


          Task 8: Assign VLANs and Configure Port Security

358


          Task 9: Configure STP

358


          Task 10: Configure DHCP

359


          Task 11: Configure a Firewall ACL

359


  CCNA Skills Practice (Answers)

360


          Task 1: Configure Frame Relay in a Hub-and-Spoke Topology

360


          Task 2: Configure PPP with CHAP

362


          Task 3: Configure Static and Dynamic NAT on HQ

362


          Task 4: Configure Default Routing

364


          Task 5: Configure Inter-VLAN Routing

364


          Task 6: Configure and Optimize EIGRP Routing

365


          Task 7: Configure VTP, Trunking, the VLAN Interface, and VLANs

367


          Task 8: Assign VLANs and Configure Port Security

369


          Task 9: Configure STP

370


          Task 10: Configure DHCP

371


          Task 11: Configure a Firewall ACL

372


  CCNA Skills Challenge

374

Part IX: Exam Day and Post-Exam Information

375

Exam Day

377


  What You Need for the Exam

377


  What You Should Receive After Completion

377


  Summary

378

Post-Exam Information

379


  Receiving Your Certificate

379


  Determining Career Options

379


  Examining Certification Options

380


  If You Failed the Exam

380


  Summary

380

TOC, 1587131978, 10/21/08



Preface

top


Introduction

You are almost there! If you're reading this Introduction, you've probably already spent a considerable amount of time and energy pursuing your CCNA certification. Regardless of how you got to this point in your travels through your CCNA studies, 31 Days Before Your CCNA Exam most likely represents the last leg of your journey on your way to the destination: to become a Cisco Certified Network Associate. However if you are like me, you might be reading this book at the beginning of your studies. If such is the case, this book provides you with an excellent overview of the material you must now spend a great deal of time studying and practicing. I must warn you, though; unless you are extremely well versed in networking technologies and have considerable experience configuring and troubleshooting Cisco routers and switches, this book will not serve you well as the sole resource for CCNA exam preparation. Therefore, let me spend some time discussing my recommendations for study resources.
Study Resources

Cisco Press offers an abundance of CCNA-related books to serve as your primary source for learning how to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size routed and switched networks. See the inside cover of this book for a quick list of my recommendations.
Foundational Resources

First on the list must be Wendell Odom's CCNA Official Exam Certification Library, Third Edition (ISBN: 1587201836). If you do not buy any other books, buy this set of two. Wendell's method of teaching, combined with his technical expertise and down-to-earth style, is unsurpassed in our industry. As you read through his books, you sense that he is sitting right there next to you walking you through the material. The practice exams and study materials on the CD in the back of the book are worth the price of the book. There is no better resource on the market for a CCNA candidate.

Next on the list must be Steve McQuerry's Authorized Self-Study Guide CCNA Preparation Library, Seventh Edition (ISBN: 1587054647). These two books are indispensable to those students who take the two Cisco recommended training classes for CCNA preparation: Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 1 (ICND1) and Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices 2 (ICND2). These courses, available through Cisco Training Partners in a variety of formats, are usually of a very short duration (1 to 6 weeks) and are geared toward the industry professional already working in the field of networking. Steve's books serve the reader well as a concise, but thorough, treatment of the CCNA exam topics. His method and approach often differ from and complement Wendell's approach. I recommend that you also refer to these books.

If you are a Cisco Networking Academy student, you are blessed with access to the online version of the CCNA curriculum and the wildly popular Packet Tracer network simulator. Although there are two versions of the CCNA curriculum-Discovery and Exploration-I chose to use the four CCNA Exploration courses in my daily review of the exam topics. The Exploration curriculum provides a comprehensive overview of networking, from fundamentals to advanced applications and services. The Exploration courses emphasize theoretical concepts and practical application, while providing opportunities for students to gain the skills and hands-on experience needed to design, install, operate, and maintain networks in small-to-medium businesses, as well as enterprise and service provider environments. In an Academy class, not only do you have access to Packet Tracer, but you have access to extensive, guided labs and real equipment on which to practice your CCNA skills. To learn more about CCNA Exploration and to find an Academy near you, visit http://www.cisco.com/web/learning/netacad/course--catalog/CCNAexploration.html.

However, if you are not an Academy student but would like to benefit from the extensive authoring done for these courses, you can buy any or all of the CCNA Exploration Companion Guides (CG) and Lab Study Guides (LSG) of the Academy's popular online curriculum. Although you will not have access to the Packet Tracer network simulator software, you will have access to the tireless work of an outstanding team of Cisco Academy Instructors dedicated to providing students with comprehensive and engaging CCNA preparation course material. The titles and ISBNs for the CCNA Exploration CGs and LSGs are as follows:


  *


      Network Fundamentals (CG ISBN: 1587132087; LSG ISBN: 1587132036)


  *


      Routing Protocols and Concepts (CG ISBN: 1587132060; LSG ISBN: 1587132044)


  *


      LAN Switching and Wireless (CG ISBN: 1587132079; LSG ISBN: 1587132028)


  *


      Accessing the WAN (CG ISBN: 1587132052; LSG ISBN: 158713201X)

You can find these books at http://www.ciscopress.com by clicking the CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY link.
Supplemental Resources

In addition to the book you hold in your hands, I recommend two more supplemental resources to augment your final 31 days of review and preparation.

First, Eric Rivard and Jim Doherty are coauthors of CCNA Flash Cards and Exam Practice Pack, Third Edition (ISBN: 1587201909). The text portion of the book includes more than 700 flash cards that quickly review exam topics in bite-sized pieces. Also included are nearly 200 pages of quick-reference sheets designed for late-stage exam preparation. And the included CD features a test engine with more than 500 CCNA practice exam questions.

Second, Wendell Odom has put together an excellent collection of more than four hours of personal, visual instruction in one package, titled CCNA Video Mentor, Second Edition (ISBN: 1587201917). It contains a DVD with 20 videos and a lab manual. Wendell walks you through common Cisco router and switch configuration topics designed to develop and enhance your hands-on skills.
The Cisco Learning Network

Finally, if you have not done so already, you should now register with the Cisco Learning Network at http://cisco.hosted.jivesoftware.com/. Sponsored by Cisco, the Cisco Learning Network is a free social-learning network where IT professionals can engage in the common pursuit of enhancing and advancing their IT careers. Here you will find many resources to help you prepare for your CCNA exam, as well as a community of like-minded people ready to answer your questions, help you with your struggles, and share in your triumphs.

So which resources should you buy? That question is largely up to how deep your pockets are or how much you like books. If you're like me, you must have it all! I admit it. My bookcase is a testament to my Cisco 'geekness.' But if you are on a budget, choose one of the foundational study resources and one of the supplemental resources, such as Wendell Odom's certification library and Rivard/ Doherty's flash cards. Whatever you choose, you will be in good hands. Any or all of these authors will serve you well.
Goals and Methods

The main goal of this book is to provide you with a clear and succinct review of the CCNA objectives. Each day's exam topics are grouped into a common conceptual framework that uses the following format:


  *


      A title for the day that concisely states the overall topic


  *


      A list of one or more CCNA 640-802 exam topics to be reviewed


  *


      A Key Topics section to introduce the review material and quickly orient you to the day's focus


  *


      An extensive review section consisting of short paragraphs, lists, tables, examples, and graphics


  *


      A Study Resources section to provide a quick reference for locating more in-depth treatment of the day's topics

The book counts down starting with Day 31 and continues through exam day to provide post-test information. You will also find a calendar and checklist that you can tear out and use during your exam preparation inside the book.

Use the calendar to enter each actual date beside the countdown day and the exact day, time, and location of your CCNA exam. The calendar provides a visual for the time that you can dedicate to each CCNA exam topic.

The checklist highlights important tasks and deadlines leading up to your exam. Use it to help you map out your studies.
Who Should Read This Book?

The audience for this book is anyone finishing preparation for taking the CCNA 640-802 exam. A secondary audience is anyone needing a refresher review of CCNA exam topics-possibly before attempting to recertify or sit for another certification to which the CCNA is a prerequisite.
Getting to Know the CCNA 640-802 Exam

For the current certifications, announced in June 2007, Cisco created the ICND1 (640-822) and ICND2 (640-816) exams, along with the CCNA (640-802) exam. To become CCNA certified, you can pass both the ICND1 and ICND2 exams, or just the CCNA exam. The CCNA exam covers all the topics on the ICND1 and ICND2 exams, giving you two options for gaining your CCNA certification. The two-exam path gives people with less experience a chance to study for a smaller set of topics at one time. The one-exam option provides a more cost-effective certification path for those who want to prepare for all the topics at once. This book focuses exclusively on the one-exam path using the entire list of exam topics for the CCNA 640-802 exam.

Currently for the CCNA exam, you are allowed 90 minutes to answer 50-60 questions. Use the following steps to access a tutorial at home that demonstrates the exam environment before you go to take the exam:


      Step 1: Visit http://www.vue.com/cisco.


      Step 2: Look for a link to the certification tutorial. Currently, it can be found on the right side of the web page under the heading Related Links.


      Step 3: Click the Certification tutorial link.

When you get to the testing center and check in, the proctor verifies your identity, gives you some general instructions, and then takes you into a quiet room containing a PC. When you're at the PC, you have a few things to do before the timer starts on your exam. For instance, you can take the tutorial to get accustomed to the PC and the testing engine. Every time I sit for an exam, I go through the tutorial, even though I know how the test engine works. It helps me settle my nerves and get focused. Anyone who has user-level skills in getting around a PC should have no problems with the testing environment.

When you start the exam, you are asked a series of questions. Each question is presented one at a time and must be answered before moving on to the next question. The exam engine does not let you go back and change your answer. The exam questions can be in one of the following formats:


  *


      Multiple choice


  *


      Fill-in-the-blank


  *


      Drag-and-drop


  *


      Testlet


  *


      Simlet


  *


      Simulation

The multiple-choice format requires that you point and click a circle or check box next to the correct answer or answers. Cisco traditionally tells you how many answers you need to choose, and the testing software prevents you from choosing too many or too few.

Fill-in-the-blank questions typically require you only to type numbers. However if words are requested, the case does not matter unless the answer is a command that is case sensitive (such as passwords and device names when configuring authentication).

Drag-and-drop questions require you to click and hold, move a button or icon to another area, and release the mouse button to place the object somewhere else-typically in a list. For some questions, to get the question correct, you might need to put a list of five things in the proper order.

Testlets contain one general scenario and several multiple-choice questions about the scenario. These are ideal if you are confident in your knowledge of the scenario's content because you can leverage your strength over multiple questions.

A simlet is similar to a testlet in that you are given a scenario with several multiple-choice questions. However, a simlet uses a network simulator to allow you access to a simulation of the command line of Cisco IOS Software. You can then use show commands to examine a network's current behavior and answer the question.

A simulation also uses a network simulator, but you are given a task to accomplish, such as implementing a network solution or troubleshooting an existing network implementation. You do this by configuring one or more routers and switches. The exam then grades the question based on the configuration you changed or added. A newer form of the simulation question is the GUI-based simulation, where a graphical interface like that found on a Linksys router or the Cisco Security Device Manager is simulated.
What Topics Are Covered on the CCNA Exam

The topics of the CCNA 640-802 exam focus on the following eight key categories:


  *


      Describe how a network works.


  *


      Configure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications.


  *


      Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP Services to meet network requirements in a medium-size enterprise branch office network.


  *


      Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic router operation and routing on Cisco devices.


  *


      Explain and select the appropriate administrative tasks required for a WLAN.


  *


      Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to mitigate those threats.


  *


      Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size enterprise branch office network.


  *


      Implement and verify WAN links.

Although Cisco outlines general exam topics, it is possible that not all topics will appear on the CCNA exam and that topics that are not specifically listed might appear on the exam. The exam topics provided by Cisco and included in this book are a general framework for exam preparation. Be sure to check the Cisco website for the latest exam topics.
Cisco Networking Academy Student Discount Voucher

If you are a Cisco Networking Academy student, you have the opportunity to earn a discount voucher to use when registering and paying for your exam with Pearson VUE. To receive the discount voucher, you must complete all four courses of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and receive a score of 75 percent or higher on your first attempt of the final exam for the final CCNA Exploration course, Accessing the WAN. The amount of the discount varies by region and testing center, but typically it has been as much as 50% off the full exam price. Log in to the Academy Connection and click Help at the top of the page to research more information on receiving a discount voucher.
Registering for the CCNA 640-802 Exam

If you are starting your 31 Days to Your CCNA today, register for the exam right now. In my testing experience, there is no better motivator than a scheduled test date staring me in the face. I'm willing to bet it's the same for you. Don't worry about unforeseen circumstances. You can cancel your exam registration for a full refund up to 24 hours before taking the exam. So if you're ready, you should gather the following information in Table I-1 and register right now!

Table I-1 Personal Information for CCNA 640-802 Exam Registration

Item

Notes

Legal Name

Social Security or Passport Number

Cisco Certification ID or Test ID1

Cisco Academy Username2

Cisco Academy ID Number2

Company Name

Valid Email Address

Voucher Number2

Method of Payment

1Applies to exam candidates if you have previously taken a Cisco certification exam (such as the ICND1 exam)

2Applies to Cisco Networking Academy students only

To register for an exam, contact Pearson VUE via one of the following methods:


  *


      Online: http://www.vue.com/cisco.


  *


      By phone: In the United States and Canada call 1-800-829-6387, option 1, then option 4. Check the website for information regarding other countries.

The process and available test times will vary based on the local testing center you choose.

Remember, there is no better motivation for study than an actual test date. Sign up today.

Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.



About the Authors

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Allan Johnson entered the academic world in 1999 after ten years as a business owner/operator to dedicate his efforts to his passion for teaching. He holds both an MBA and an M.Ed in Occupational Training and Development. He taught CCNA courses at the high school level for seven years and has taught both CCNA and CCNP courses at Del Mar College in Corpus Christi, Texas. In 2003, Allan began to commit much of his time and energy to the CCNA Instructional Support Team providing services to Networking Academy instructors worldwide and creating training materials. He now works full time for the Academy in Learning Systems Development.