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Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide: Foundation learning for the ROUTE 642-902 Exam

by: Diane Teare

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Publisher: CISCO PRESS,01.08.09

Category: CCNP 2012 Level: B/I/A

ISBN: 1587058820
ISBN13: 9781587058820

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Foundational, authorized learning for Cisco's brand-new CCNP Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) exam - straight from Cisco!

* The only Cisco authorized self-study book for the new CCNP ROUTE exam: developed with Learning@Cisco, designers of the exam and its companion course
* Includes review questions, chapter objectives, summaries, definitions, case studies, job aids, and command summaries
* Thoroughly introduces routed network construction, support, and scalability

Table of Contents
Introduction xxvii

Table of contents

  Introduction xxvii Chapter 1 Routing Services 1 Complex Enterprise Network Frameworks, Architectures, and Models 1 Traffic Conditions in a Converged Network 1 Cisco IIN and SONA Framework 3 Cisco IIN 3 Cisco SONA Framework 4 Cisco Network Models 6 Cisco Enterprise Architecture 6 Cisco Hierarchical Network Model 8 Cisco Enterprise Composite Network Model 9 Creating, Documenting, and Executing an Implementation Plan 13 Approaches to Creating an Implementation Plan 14 Creating an Implementation Plan 15 Implementation Plan Documentation 17 Implementation Plan Example 18 Example Network Scenario 18 Example Network Requirements 18 Example Network Implementation Plan 19 Reviewing IP Routing Principles 21 IP Routing Overview 22 Principles of Static Routing 22 Principles of Dynamic Routing 26 Principles of On-Demand Routing 28 Characteristics of Routing Protocols 30 Distance Vector, Link-State, and Advanced Distance Vector Routing Protocols 30 Classful Routing Protocol Concepts 31 Classless Routing Protocol Concepts 35 RIPv2 and EIGRP Automatic Network-Boundary Summarization 35 RIP 38 Characteristics of RIPv1 38 Characteristics of RIPv2 38 RIP Configuration Commands 39 Populating the Routing Table 41 Administrative Distance 41 Routing Protocol Metrics 43 Criteria for Inserting Routes into the IP Routing Table 45 Floating Static Routes 45 IP Routing Protocol Comparisons 46 Routing and Routing Protocols Within the Enterprise Composite Network Model 48 Summary 49 Review Questions 51 Chapter 2 Configuring the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 57 Understanding EIGRP Terminology and Operation 58 EIGRP Capabilities and Attributes 58 EIGRP Terminology 61 EIGRP Operation 63 Populating EIGRP Tables 63 EIGRP Packets 65 EIGRP Neighbors 67 Initial Route Discovery 69 DUAL 71 Advertised Distance and Feasible Distance 71 Successor and Feasible Successor 72 DUAL Example 75 EIGRP Metric Calculation 80 Planning EIGRP Routing Implementations 83 Configuring and Verifying EIGRP 84 Planning and Configuring Basic EIGRP 85 Planning for Basic EIGRP 85 Basic EIGRP Configuration 86 Basic Configuration Example 88 Another Basic EIGRP Configuration Example 89 Verifying EIGRP Operation 90 Verifying EIGRP Neighbors 93 Verifying EIGRP Routes 94 Verifying EIGRP Operations 96 Using the passive-interface Command with EIGRP 104 Propagating an EIGRP Default Route 107 EIGRP Route Summarization 109 Configuring Manual Route Summarization 110 Verifying Manual Route Summarization 112 Configuring and Verifying EIGRP in an Enterprise WAN 113 EIGRP over Frame Relay and on a Physical Interface 113 Frame Relay Overview 113 EIGRP on a Physical Frame Relay Interface with Dynamic Mapping 114 EIGRP on a Frame Relay Physical Interface with Static Mapping 116 EIGRP over Frame Relay Multipoint Subinterfaces 118 Frame Relay Multipoint Subinterfaces 118 EIGRP over Multipoint Subinterfaces 119 EIGRP Unicast Neighbors 121 EIGRP over Frame Relay Point-to-Point Subinterfaces 123 Frame Relay Point-to-Point Subinterfaces 123 EIGRP on Frame Relay Point-to-Point Subinterfaces 123 EIGRP over MPLS 125 MPLS 125 MPLS Operation 126 Service Provider Offerings 127 Layer 2 and Layer 3 MPLS VPN Solutions 128 Layer 3 MPLS VPNs 128 Layer 2 MPLS VPNs 132 EIGRP Load Balancing 134 EIGRP Equal-Cost Load Balancing 134 EIGRP Unequal-Cost Load Balancing 136 EIGRP Bandwidth Use Across WAN Links 139 EIGRP Link Utilization 139 Examples of EIGRP on WANs 140 Configuring and Verifying EIGRP Authentication 144 Router Authentication 144 Simple Authentication Versus MD5 Authentication 144 MD5 Authentication for EIGRP 146 Planning for EIGRP Authentication 147 Configuring EIGRP MD5 Authentication 147 MD5 Authentication Configuration Example 148 Verifying MD5 Authentication for EIGRP 152 EIGRP MD5 Authentication Verification 153 Troubleshooting MD5 Authentication 154 Optimizing EIGRP Implementations 156 EIGRP Scalability in Large Networks 156 EIGRP Queries and Stuck-in-Active 158 Stuck-in-Active Connections in EIGRP 158 Preventing SIA Connections 160 EIGRP Query Range 161 Limiting the EIGRP Query Range 164 Graceful Shutdown 173 Summary 174 References 179 Review Questions 179 Chapter 3 Configuring the Open Shortest Path First Protocol 185 Understanding OSPF Terminology and Operation 186 Link-State Routing Protocols 186 OSPF Area Structure 188 OSPF Areas 191 Area Terminology 192 OSPF Adjacencies 193 OSPF Metric Calculation 195 Link-State Data Structures 196 OSPF Packets 197 Establishing OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies: Hello 199 Exchange Process and OSPF Neighbor Adjacency States 201 OSPF Neighbor States 204 Maintaining Routing Information 205 OSPF Link-State Sequence Numbers 207 Verifying Packet Flow 208 Configuring and Verifying Basic OSPF Routing 209 Planning and Configuring OSPF 209 Planning OSPF Routing Implementations 209 Configuring Basic OSPF 211 Single-Area OSPF Configuration Example 212 Multiarea OSPF Configuration Example 213 OSPF Router ID 214 Loopback Interfaces 215 OSPF router-id Command 215 Verifying the OSPF Router ID 216 Verifying OSPF Operations 217 The show ip ospf interface Command 218 The show ip ospf neighbor Command 219 The show ip route ospf Command 221 The show ip protocols Command 221 The debug ip ospf events Command 222 Understanding OSPF Network Types 222 Types of OSPF Networks 222 Electing a DR and BDR and Setting Priority 223 Adjacency Behavior for a Point-to-Point Link 224 Adjacency Behavior for a Broadcast Network 224 Adjacency Behavior over a Layer 2 MPLS VPN 225 Adjacency Behavior over a Layer 3 MPLS VPN 226 Adjacency Behavior for an NBMA Network 227 DR Election in an NBMA Topology 228 OSPF over Frame Relay Topology Options 228 OSPF over NBMA Topology Modes of Operation 229 Selecting the OSPF Network Type for NBMA Networks 229 OSPF Configuration in Cisco Broadcast Mode 231 OSPF Nonbroadcast Mode Configuration 231 OSPF Configuration in Point-to-Multipoint Mode 233 OSPF Configuration in Cisco Point-to-Multipoint Nonbroadcast Mode 236 Using Subinterfaces in OSPF over Frame Relay Configuration 236 OSPF Configuration in Cisco Point-to-Point Mode 239 OSPF over NBMA Modes of Operation Summary 240 Displaying OSPF Adjacency Activity 241 Understanding OSPF LSAs 244 LSA Type 1: Router LSA 246 LSA Type 2: Network LSA 247 LSA Type 3: Summary LSA 247 LSA Type 4: Summary LSA 248 LSA Type 5: External LSA 249 Example OSPF LSAs in a Network 250 Interpreting the OSPF LSDB and Routing Table 250 OSPF LSDB 250 OSPF Routing Table and Types of Routes 254 Calculating the Costs of E1 and E2 Routes 255 Configuring OSPF LSDB Overload Protection 256 Configuring and Verifying Advanced OSPF Features 258 Using the passive-interface Command with OSPF 258 Propagating an OSPF Default Route 260 Configuring OSPF Route Summarization 263 Configuring Inter-area OSPF Route Summarization on an ABR 265 Interarea Route Summarization Configuration Example on an ABR 266 Configuring External OSPF Route Summarization on an ASBR 267 External Route Summarization Configuration Example on an ASBR 268 OSPF Virtual Links 269 Configuring OSPF Virtual Links 270 Verifying OSPF Virtual Link Operation 272 OSPF LSDB for Virtual Links 275 Changing the Cost Metric 278 Configuring OSPF Special Area Types 279 Configuring Stub Areas 281 Configuring Totally Stubby Areas 284 Interpreting Routing Tables in Different Types of OSPF Areas 286 Configuring NSSAs 289 Configuring Totally Stubby NSSAs 294 Example OSPF Area Types in a Network 295 Verifying All Area Types 296 Configuring and Verifying OSPF Authentication 297 Planning for OSPF Authentication 297 Configuring, Verifying, and Troubleshooting OSPF Simple Password Authentication 297 Configuring OSPF Simple Password Authentication 297 Simple Password Authentication Example 299 Verifying Simple Password Authentication 300 Troubleshooting Simple Password Authentication 301 Configuring OSPF Simple Password Authentication for Virtual Links 304 Configuring, Verifying, and Troubleshooting MD5 Authentication 305 Configuring OSPF MD5 Authentication 305 MD5 Authentication Example 307 Verifying MD5 Authentication 308 Troubleshooting MD5 Authentication 309 Summary 311 References 314 Review Questions 315 Chapter 4 Manipulating Routing Updates 325 Assessing Network Routing Performance Issues 326 Routing Protocol Performance Issues 326 Routing Protocol Performance Solutions 327 Using Multiple IP Routing Protocols on a Network 329 Understanding a Network with Complex Routing 329 Understanding Route Redistribution 330 Redistribution Overview 330 Redistributed Routes 332 Redistribution Implementation Considerations 334 Selecting the Best Route in a Redistribution Environment 335 Redistribution Techniques 338 One-Point Redistribution 339 Multipoint Redistribution 340 Preventing Routing Loops in a Redistribution Environment 342 Implementing Route Redistribution 344 Configuring Route Redistribution 344 Redistributing into RIP 346 Redistributing into OSPF 347 Redistributing into EIGRP 350 The default-metric Command 352 The passive-interface Command 353 Route Redistribution Example 355 Using Administrative Distance to Influence the Route-Selection Process 358 Selecting Routes with Administrative Distance 358 Modifying Administrative Distance 361 Redistribution Using Administrative Distance Example 363 Verifying Redistribution Operation 369 Controlling Routing Update Traffic 370 Static and Default Routes 371 Using Route Maps 373 Route Map Applications 373 Understanding Route Maps 374 Configuring Route Maps to Control Routing Updates 376 Configuring Route Maps for Policy Based Routing 377 Configuring Route Redistribution Using Route Maps 379 Using Route Maps with Redistribution 380 Using Route Maps to Avoid Route Feedback 381 Using Route Maps with Tags 382 Using Route Maps with Redistribution and Tags 382 Using Distribute Lists 384 Configuring Distribute Lists to Control Routing Updates 386 Controlling Redistribution with Distribute Lists 389 Using Prefix Lists 390 Prefix List Characteristics 390 Filtering with Prefix Lists 391 Configuring Prefix Lists 391 Verifying Prefix Lists 397 Using Multiple Methods to Control Routing Updates 398 Comprehensive Example of Controlling Routing Updates 398 Summary 412 References 415 Review Questions 416 Chapter 5 Implementing Path Control 419 Understanding Path Control 419 Assessing Path Control Network Performance 419 Path Control Tools 421 Implementing Path Control Using Offset Lists 424 Using Offset Lists to Control Path Selection 424 Configuring Path Control Using Offset Lists 424 Verifying Path Control Using Offset Lists 426 Implementing Path Control Using Cisco IOS IP SLAs 426 Using Cisco IOS IP SLAs to Control Path Selection 427 Cisco IOS IP SLAs Operation 429 Cisco IOS IP SLAs Sources and Responders 429 Cisco IOS IP SLAs Operations 430 Cisco IOS IP SLAs Operation with Responders 430 Cisco IOS IP SLAs with Responder Time Stamps 432 Configuring Path Control Using IOS IP SLAs 432 Configuring Cisco IOS IP SLAs Operations 433 Configuring Cisco IOS IP SLAs Tracking Objects 436 Configuring the Action Associated with the Tracking Object 436 Verifying Path Control Using IOS IP SLAs 437 Examples of Path Control Using Cisco IOS IP SLAs 438 Tracking Reachability to Two ISPs 438 Tracking DNS Server Reachability in the Two ISPs 440 Implementing Path Control Using Policy-Based Routing 446 Using PBR to Control Path Selection 447 Configuring PBR 448 PBR match Commands 448 PBR set Commands 449 Configuring PBR on an Interface 452 Verifying PBR 454 PBR Examples 454 Using PBR When Connecting Two ISPs 454 Using PBR Based on Source Address 457 Alternative Solution IP SLAs Configuration Example Using PBR 459 Advanced Path Control Tools 460 Cisco IOS Optimized Edge Routing 460 Virtualization 461 Cisco Wide Area Application Services 462 Summary 463 References 467 Review Questions 467 Chapter 6 Implementing a Border Gateway Protocol Solution for ISP Connectivity 471 BGP Terminology, Concepts, and Operation 471 Autonomous Systems 471 BGP Use Between Autonomous Systems 474 Comparison with Other Scalable Routing Protocols 475 Connecting Enterprise Networks to an ISP 477 Public IP Address Space 478 Connection Link Type and Routing 478 Connection Redundancy 482 Using BGP in an Enterprise Network 485 BGP Multihoming Options 486 Multihoming with Default Routes from All Providers 487 Multihoming with Default Routes and Partial Table from All Providers 488 Multihoming with Full Routes from All Providers 491 BGP Path Vector Characteristics 492 When to Use BGP 494 When Not to Use BGP 495 BGP Characteristics 495 BGP Neighbor Relationships 497 External BGP Neighbors 497 Internal BGP Neighbors 498 IBGP on All Routers in a Transit Path 500 IBGP in a Transit Autonomous System 500 IBGP in a Nontransit Autonomous System 501 BGP Partial-Mesh and Full-Mesh Examples 501 TCP and Full Mesh 502 Routing Issues If BGP Not on in All Routers in a Transit Path 503 BGP Synchronization 504 BGP Tables 506 BGP Message Types 508 Open and Keepalive Messages 508 Update Messages 509 Notification Messages 509 BGP Attributes 510 Well-Known Attributes 511 Optional Attributes 511 Defined BGP Attributes 512 The AS-Path Attribute 513 The Next-Hop Attribute 514 The Origin Attribute 517 The Local Preference Attribute 518 The Community Attribute 519 The MED Attribute 519 The Weight Attribute (Cisco Only) 520 The Route-Selection Decision Process 521 BGP Route-Selection Process 522 The Path-Selection Decision Process with a Multihomed Connection 525 Configuring BGP 526 Planning BGP Implementations 527 Peer Groups 527 Entering BGP Configuration Mode 529 Defining BGP Neighbors and Activating BGP Sessions 529 Shutting Down a BGP Neighbor 531 Defining the Source IP Address 531 EBGP Multihop 534 Changing the Next-Hop Attribute 536 Defining the Networks That BGP Advertises 538 BGP Neighbor Authentication 540 Configuring BGP Synchronization 542 Resetting BGP Sessions 542 Hard Reset of BGP Sessions 543 Soft Reset of BGP Sessions Outbound 544 Soft Reset of BGP Sessions Inbound 544 BGP Configuration Examples 546 Basic BGP Examples 546 Peer Group Example 547 IBGP and EBGP Examples 549 Verifying and Troubleshooting BGP 552 show ip bgp Command Output Example 552 show ip bgp rib-failure Command Output Example 554 show ip bgp summary Command Output Example 554 debug ip bgp updates Command Output Example 556 Understanding and Troubleshooting BGP Neighbor States 557 Idle State Troubleshooting 558 Active State Troubleshooting 558 Established State 559 Basic BGP Path Manipulation Using Route Maps 559 BGP Path Manipulation 560 Changing the Weight 562 Changing the Weight for All Updates from a Neighbor 562 Changing the Weight Using Route Maps 562 Setting Local Preference 564 Changing Local Preference for All Routes 564 Local Preference Example 565 Changing Local Preference Using Route Maps 567 Setting the AS-Path 568 Setting the MED 570 Changing the MED for All Routes 571 Changing the MED Using Route Maps 572 Implementing BGP in an Enterprise Network 575 Filtering BGP Routing Updates 576 BGP Filtering Using Prefix Lists 578 Planning BGP Filtering Using Prefix Lists 578 BGP Filtering Using Prefix Lists Example 578 BGP Filtering Using Route Maps 580 Planning BGP Filtering Using Route Maps 580 BGP Filtering with Route Maps Example 580 Summary 582 References 587 Review Questions 587 Chapter 7 Implementing Routing Facilities for Branch Offices and Mobile Workers 591 Planning the Branch Office Implementation 591 Branch Office Design 591 Upgrade Scenario 595 Implementation Plan 596 Deploying Broadband Connectivity 597 Satellite Broadband Information 598 Cable Background Information 601 DSL Background Information 603 PPPoA 606 Configuring Static Routing 609 Routing to the Internet 611 Floating Static Route 615 Verifying Branch Services 618 Configuring NAT 619 Verifying NAT 623 Verifying Other Services 629 Verifying and Tuning IPsec VPNs 631 IPsec Technologies 632 Encapsulation Process 633 IPsec Site-to-Site VPN Configuration 635 ISAKMP Policy 636 IPsec Details 637 VPN Tunnel Information 637 VPN ACL 638 Apply the Crypto Map 638 Verifying an IPsec VPN 639 Impact on Routing 647 Configuring GRE Tunnels 647 Generic Routing Encapsulation 649 Configuring GRE 650 Example of GRE Configuration 652 Planning for Mobile Worker Implementations 661 Connecting a Mobile Worker 661 Components for Mobile Workers 662 Business-Ready Mobile Worker and VPN Options 663 Routing Traffic to the Mobile Worker 664 VPN Headend Configuration 665 Allowing IPsec Traffic 666 Defining Address Pools 670 Providing Routing Services for VPN Subnets 672 Tuning NAT for VPN Traffic Flows 675 Verifying IPsec VPN Configuration 677 Reviewing Alternatives for Mobile Worker Connectivity 683 Summary 685 References 688 Review Questions 688 Chapter 8 Implementing IPv6 in an Enterprise Network 691 Introducing IPv6 691 IPv4 Issues 692 Features of IPv6 693 IPv6 Packet Header 695 Extension Headers 696 MTU Discovery 698 IPv6 Addressing 698 IPv6 Addressing in an Enterprise Network 698 IPv6 Address Representation 700 Interface Identifiers in IPv6 Addresses 701 IPv6 Address Types 704 IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses 705 IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses 707 IPv6 Site-Local Unicast Addresses: Deprecated 708 IPv6 Multicast Addresses 708 Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 710 IPv6 Anycast Addresses 711 Comparing IPv6 Addresses with IPv4 Addresses 712 Configuring and Verifying IPv6 Unicast Addresses 716 IPv6 Unicast Address Configuration and Verification Commands 717 Static IPv6 Address Assignment 719 Static Global Aggregatable Address Assignment 719 Assigning Multiple Global Aggregatable Addresses 721 IPv6 Unnumbered Interfaces 723 Static Link-Local Address Assignment 723 Stateless Autoconfiguration of IPv6 Addresses 724 Unicast Connectivity on Different Connection Types 733 Unicast Connectivity on Broadcast Multiaccess Links 733 Unicast Connectivity on Point-to-Point Links 738 Unicast Connectivity on Point-to-Multipoint Links 742 Routing IPv6 Traffic 746 IPv6 Routing Protocols 747 Static Routing 747 Static Route Configuration and Verification Commands 747 Static Route Configuration and Verification Example 750 RIPng 751 RIPng Configuration and Verification Commands 752 RIPng Configuration and Verification Example 752 OSPFv3 759 Similarities Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 760 Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 761 OSPFv3 Configuration and Verification Commands 763 OSPFv3 Configuration and Verification Examples 767 EIGRP for IPv6 773 EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration and Verification Commands 773 EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration and Verification Example 774 MBGP 782 MBGP Configuration and Verification Commands 783 MBGP Configuration and Verification Example 784 IPv6 Policy-Based Routing 785 IPv6 PBR Configuration and Verification Commands 785 IPv6 PBR Configuration and Verification Example 788 IPv6 Redistribution 791 RIPng Redistribution 791 RIPng and OSPFv3 Redistribution 799 RIPng, OSPFv3, and MBGP Redistribution 814 Transitioning IPv4 to IPv6 824 Dual Stack 826 Tunneling 828 Translation 829 Tunneling IPv6 Traffic 830 Manual IPv6 Tunnels 830 Manual IPv6 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Commands 831 Manual IPv6 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Example 832 GRE IPv6 Tunnels 838 GRE IPv6 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Commands 839 GRE IPv6 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Examples 839 6to4 Tunnels 846 6to4 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Commands 848 6to4 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Example 848 IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Tunnels 854 IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Commands 854 IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Tunnel Configuration and Verification Example 854 ISATAP Tunnels 857 ISATAP Tunnel Configuration and Verification Commands 859 ISATAP Tunnel Configuration and Verification Example 859 Translation Using NAT-PT 864 Static NAT-PT for IPv6 865 Static NAT-PT Operation 865 Static NAT-PT Configuration and Verification Commands 866 Static NAT-PT Configuration and Verification Example 867 Dynamic NAT-PT for IPv6 871 Dynamic NAT-PT Configuration and Verification Commands 872 Dynamic NAT-PT Configuration and Verification Examples 873 Summary 885 References 897 Review Questions 897 Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 901 Online Supplemental Material: Appendix B IPv4 Supplement Appendix C BGP Supplement Acronyms and Abbreviations TOC, 9781587058820, 5/25/10

About the Authors


Diane Teare is a professional in the networking, training, project management, and e-learning fields. She has more than 25 years of experience in designing, implementing, and troubleshooting network hardware and software, and has been involved in teaching, course design, and project management. She has extensive knowledge of network design and routing technologies, and is an instructor with one of the largest authorized Cisco Learning Partners. She was the director of e-learning for the same company, where she was responsible for planning and supporting all the company's e-learning offerings in Canada, including Cisco courses. Diane has a bachelor's degree in applied science in electrical engineering and a master's degree in applied science in management science. She currently holds her Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP), Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP), and Project Management Professional (PMP) certifications. She co-authored the Cisco Press titles Designing Cisco Network Service Architectures (ARCH), Second Edition; Campus Network Design Fundamentals; the three editions of Authorized Self-Study Guide Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI); and Building Scalable Cisco Networks. Diane edited the two editions of the Authorized Self-Study Guide Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions (DESGN) and Designing Cisco Networks.